Nepal is a landlocked country in south Asia which is situated between 61m to 8848m altitude. It borders with China with its north and India with its east, west and south. The southern part lies at low altitude and the altitude increases towards the north where there lie the world’s highest peaks, such as Mt. Everest, Mt. Kanchejunga, and Mt Choyu etc. The northern south extension of Nepali is in average, 193km in which the major 9 climate and almost all types if natural vegetation are found which are not found in any parts of the world in such narrow topographical extension. Due to such physical diversities, we can find great diversity in climate, living standard and bio- diversity. Such diversity is the unique feature of Nepal. On the basis of landform, Nepal can be divided into 3 parts as explained below:
1. The Himalayan Region: The region in the north with and altitude above 3300m altitude is known as the Himalayan region. This region is the abode of the snow covered high mountains on the earth. The human habitation is very thin. It occupies 15% of the total area of Nepal.
2. The Hilly region: The region with the altitude from 600m to 3300m is called the Hilly region. It has also stretched from Mechi to Mahakali. There are two ranges in this region. The southern hilly part up to an altitude of 1500m beside the inner Terai is called the Churai range. In the northern part of inner Terai Churia range, there are many high hills. These are called the Mahabharat mountain range. They extend to an altitude of 3300m. The hilly area is 80 km to 130km wide and covers about 68% of the total land area.
3. The Terai region: The plain area with the width of 25km to 32 km stretching from Mechi to Mahakali and standing up to an altitude of 600m from the sea level is called Terai region. In some parts, it penetrates into the hills between the Churia range and the Mahabharat range forming the inner Terai. It covers the 17% of the total area of Nepal. It has a fertile flat land with an access to irrigation, transportation and other physical facilities that has made the region suitable for human settlement.
Culture of Nepal is rich and unique. Culture is the set of shared attitudes, values, practices and beliefs which are accepted, generally without thinking about them and that are learned and deliberately perpetuated in a society through its institution. Culture is the complex whole created by human mind and skill that includes custom, tradition, religion, art, architecture, language, literature, music, festivals, rituals, dress, ornaments, values, norms, folk, songs, etc. A society is guided by its norms, values, customs, and traditional.
Nepal is a multi- cultural and multi- ethnic country. Almost all of these ethnic groups have their own languages. Nepali is the major language of Nepal and is almost understand by all Nepalese wherever you go. It is also the official language of Nepal. In our country more than 123 languages are spoken as a mother tongue.
Traditions are those practices that are maintained and followed in a family, a community, and country over time. Tradition is also the set of norms and values from the past generations. The extreme difference in altitude has made the climate of country completely different in various parts of it. So the people living there, in order to adapt to the climate changes have developed their own way of life, their own customs and traditions.