Mount Everest AKA Sagarmatha (in Nepali) AKA Chomolungma (in Tibetan) is the highest peak in the world above sea level. From Mount Everest summit point, the international border between Nepal and China runs across. The mountain is also popular as "The Third Pole" and is the wish of every mountaineer to ascent it. This blog is designed to provide all sorts of relevant details regarding Mount Everest information and facts.
Mount Everest height is 8,848 m (29,029 ft) which was first recognized by an Indian survey in 1955 and was officially confirmed by Chinese survey after two decades in 1975. Various researchers are found being focused on evaluating the mountain height and arguing the several aspects of the measurements. Some of them argue to measure on the rock height whereas some supports on the snow height of the mountain.
In 2005, China remeasured the mountain and concluded the result of 8844.43 m. which created an argument on the basis of measurement. However, both the country, Nepal and China concluded the height of Everest is 8,848 m. in 2010.
Mount Everest lies in the international border between the Autonomous Region of China, Tibet and Nepal in the Mahalangur Range above the Tibetan Plateau named Qing Zang Gaoyuan. The Mahalangur Range is the land for other highest peaks after Everest including Mt. Lhotse (8516 m.), Mt. Makalu (8481 m.), Cho Oyu (8201 m.) and others.
On the Chinese side, the mountain is situated in Tingri County in the Xigaze area which is the part of China's autonomous region. Likewise, on the Nepalese side, the mountain is located in Province No. 1 in the Sagarmatha National Park of the Solukhumbu district. Though, the mountain is the asset of both the countries, the Nepalese side of the mountain is most accessible because of some political restrictions. Therefore, when somebody discusses Everest Base Camp (EBC) trek, it usually considers the South Base Camp from Nepal side at 17,598 feet.
Mountaineers are found being focused to set the records of climbing Everest on various categories. Here, we have presented some few records based on Everest climbing:
The first step by Tenzing and Edmund
The first people to reach Mount Everest summit are Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Percival Hillary. Nepalese mountaineer Tenzing landed the planet on 29 May, 1914, in Khumbu, Solukhumbu District of Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal and died at the age of 71 in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India on 9 May 1986. He was named as one of the 20th century most influential person by TIME Magazine. Likewise, Sir Edmon Hillary was born on 20 July 1919, in Auckland, New Zealand who died in Auckland City Hospital, Auckland on 11 January 2008 at the age of 88. Both the Mountaineers became the first climbers known to reach the top of the mountain, The Third Pole.
The first woman on Everest
On 16 May 1975, Japanese mountaineer Junko Tabei became the first woman in the world to accomplish Everest climbing. She completed the journey being accompanied by the Sherpa guide named Ang Tsering. Similarly, Pasang Lhamu Sherpa became the first Nepalese woman to climb the Everest on April 22, 1993. She was born on 10 December 1961 in Lukla, Nepal and was accompanied by other Sherpas (Lhakpa Norbu Sherpa, Sonam Tshering Sherpa, Dawa Tashi Sherpa and Pemba Dorje Sherpa) during the climb. But unfortunately, she lost her life the same day on the south summit while descending from there.
Record by Apa Sherpa
Nepalese mountaineer Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa AKA Apa Sherpa AKA Super Sherpa has reached the Everest peak for 21 times exactly till date. He made his first success on May 10, 1990, and his last victory over the giant mountain was on May 11, 2011, which made him break his own records. As of now, the Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer resides in Draper, Utah, the United States. According to Apa, the negative consequences of global warming on the mountain has already been realized and climbing the mountain has become tougher because of rock surfaces due to the melting of ice.
Apa's record has been tied by Sherpa Phurba Tashi in 2013 and people recognize him for his brilliant role for the heartrending 2015 documentary Sherpa. Likewise, American mountaineer, Dave Hahn holds the record among non-sherpa community making a total of 15 successful attempts to date. Similarly, American Melissa Arnot holds the record of maximum five successful attempts by a non-Sherpa woman on the mountain. Her last successful attempt was made on 5 June 2013.
The youngest person on Everest
On May 22, 2010, Jordan Romero became the youngest person to make the successful climbing attempt on the Sagarmatha. He was born on July 12, 1996, and was only thirteen years old while making the record. He completed the daring job alongside with his father and step-mom. Romero also holds the record as the youngest mountaineer to climb the Seven Summits.
Fastest ascent from Everest South Base Camp
On May 21, 2004, Nepalese mountaineer Pemba Dorje made the fastest ascent with supplemental oxygen with the record of 8 hours and 10 minutes. Similarly, Aman Kumar Sinha from India made the fastest ascent from Everest South Base Camp without supplemental oxygen with the record time of 20 hours and 24 minutes.
Oldest summiters on Everest
Yuichiro Miura holds the record of the oldest climber on Everest at the age of 80 years 224 days. He was born in 1932 and made the record on May 23, 2013. Similarly, Tamae Watanabe is the oldest female summiter with the age record of 73 years 180 days on May 19, 2012.
Some disabled summiters
On May 25, 2001, a blind mountaineer Erik Weihenmayer from the United States made the successful attempt on the Everest. Some more disabled summiteers include Tom Whittaker (Amputated foot), Nick Talbot (Cystic fibrosis), Sudarshan Gautam (Double arm amputee), Ian Toothill (Cancer patient) and others.
First ascent without supplemental oxygen
Italian mountaineer, explorer and author Reinhold Messner made the first solo ascent on Everest and also holds the record of becoming the first person to climb the mountain without supplemental oxygen alongside his mountaineering partner Peter Habeler. Apart from these, he also holds the record to become the first person to ascend all the fourteen peaks over 26,000 feet i.e. 8,000m including Mt.K2, Mt. Annapurna, Nanga Parbat and so on. Reinhold Messner made the successful attempt on Everest without supplemental oxygen in 1978. After two years on August 28, 1980, he reached the peak of the Everest alone without supplementary oxygen.
Although Everest is popular for its massive notoriety and structure, it isn't the deadliest mountain to ascent compared to other toughest mountains like Annapurna, K2, Kangchenjunga, Mt. Vinson and so on. Mt. Annapurna has been accent by more than 130 people and more than 53 people have already lost their life trying.
As of now, total deaths number while attempting Mount Everest by country includes Nepal (111), India (19), Japan (19), United Kingdom (17), United States (15), China (12) South Korea (11), Australia (7), Germany (7), Poland (7), Russia (7), Canada (6), France (6), Czechoslovakia (5), Spain (4), Bulgaria (3), Italy (3), New Zealand (3), Switzerland (3), Austria (2), Czech Republic (2), Denmark (2), Hungary (2), Slovenia (2), Taiwan (2) and Yugoslavia (2). Analysing the past records, Everest has fatality-rate of around 4% to 5% ignoring the number of people who died of avalanches.
The year of 1996 was the deadliest year in Everest's history which caused deaths of 15 mountaineers because of worst climatic condition and wrong decision. This thrilling incident has been mentioned in Jon Krakauer's book entitled Into Thin Air. Similarly, on April 25, 2015, entire Nepal got devasted because of mega-earthquake which triggered the avalanche on the mountain region. In 2017, around 16 Sherpas mountaineers lost their life because of avalanche hitting their Base Camp while preparing for the routes.
Considering the map, Mount Everest lies on the international border between China and Nepal. As far as its longitude and latitude are concerned, they are 86.925026 and 27.987850 respectively. Talking about its GPS-coordinates, it includes 27° 59' 16.26" N 86° 55' 30.094" E. Likewise, UTM coordinates (WGS84) of the mountain are Zone 45R E: 492627.54 N: 3095858.72
Everest Southeast Ridge Climbing Route
The route begins from the Everest Base Camp (EBC) at an elevation of 5,300m above sea level. Heading upward, mountaineer passes through Khumbu Icefall. An interesting fact is that the routes in the icefall vary every year. Because of it, a Sherpas team also called "Icefall Doctors" fixes the route using ropes and ladder. Heading through huge highly unstable iceblocks which frequently collapse is one of the risky levels of the mount climbing. Finally, Camp 1 (6040m) is reached from where you will enter western cwm.
Entering the Western Cwm
The word "cwm" is a Welsh word which means "bowl-shaped valley". Western Cwm is also popular by the name Valley of Silence from where you will reach to Camp 2 at an altitude of 6,500m. Western cwm was named in 1921 by English mountaineer George Mallory. This is the route that was first chosen by Hillary and Norgay in 1953 and is still the most preferred route for most of the today's climbers.
Reaching the base of the Lhotse face
As you move ahead from western cwm, you will reach the base of the Lhotse face where there is a large crevasse called Bergschrund. Climbing the ice wall of enormous Lhotse face is one of the terrifying points of climbing which will take the climbers to Camp 3 (7,160m).
From Camp 3, the route takes you to cross the yellow band making you reach The Geneva Spur. And finally, you will reach Camp 4 at an elevation of 7,900m. Mountaineers leave the Camp 4 at midnight to make a very long day climb to the summit. Finally, they reach the death zone at 8,000m where the amount of oxygen is very low. Before the following nightfall, it is mandatory for climbers to get back to Camp 4 after reaching their destination. The death zone's way take the climber to The Balcony (8,400m). Higher the altitude, it becomes more difficult to climb because of extreme cold and extreme elevation. You will reach The South Summit at 8,750m which is very close to climber's destination. Finally, after passing The Hillary Step (8,760m), climber reach Mt. Everest summit at an elevation of 8,848m above the sea level.
1. Since 1969, at least one person has died while climbing MT. Everest except for 1997. The major causes of such deaths include fatigue, suffocation and starvation. More than 200 people have made the mountain as their final resting place and many bodies are still buried under the snows. It is very challenging and expensive to bring the bodies down because of poor accessibility and unfavorable weather condition.
2. Comparing Everest with the highest and tallest man-made structure, Burj Khalifa AKA Burj Dubai, the mountain is at far higher altitude than Burj Khalifa which is located in Dubai at an altitude of 2,717m above sea level.
3. An English mountaineer and IFMGA mountain guide, Kenton Cool became the first person to tweet from the summit of the Everest on 5th May 2011. His tweet has the caption "Everest summit no 9! 1st tweet from the top of the world thanks to a weak 3G signal & the awesome Samsung Galaxy S2 handset! @samsunguk" which was updated at 5:27 PM.
4. A cleaning activity was made in 2011 which removed more than 8 tons of waste human products like junk foods, empty oxygen bottles, food packages and such garbages from the mountain's region.
5. Two Nepalese mountaineers exchanged their wedding vows at the peak of Everest and became the first bride and groom to be in the top of the earth. The record holder Nepalese climbers are none other than Moni Mule Pati and Pem Dorjee Sherpa. They were the part of the Rotary Centennial Everest Expedition and has maintained secret regarding their marriage plan at the top of the mountain because there was no guarantee that the couple could get there together. Their marriage became the historic movement where they shortly took off their oxygen masks. The husband put a decorative plastic wreath and applied sindhoor (red powder) on bride's forehead for accomplishing their marriage ceremony. After returning back to the capital city from the mountain, the bride stated that they could not perform all the religious requirements for marriage ceremony but they did their best that could be done there.
6. Modern scientists are claiming that the height of Everest is still increasing around 4 mm a year which is one foot every seventy-six years. A 4 mm change might not become a big issue, but imagine, what would be the height of Mount Everest if the increasing ratio continues for next million years? The main reason behind such growth is the creeping collision between the Indian and Asian land masses. Not only the Everest, but the entire mountain in the Himalayas region are increasing and becoming more taller every year.
1852's Great Trigonometrical Survey which was sponsored by British was mapping Indian subcontinent since the beginning of 1800's. The British initially named the mountain as Peak XV and mentioned it as 29,035-foot-tall. Later the Surveyor General of India proposed the mountain to be named after his predecessor, Sir George Everest.
There were various local names for the mountain including Chomolungma (in Tibetian). However, the name was finalized by the Royal Geographical Society in 1865. The mountain is named as "Sagarmatha" meaning "forehead in the sky" in Nepali coined by Baburam Acharya (ITIHAAS SIROMANI), a renowned Nepalese historian and literary scholar.
In the Tibetan language, the mountain is called by the name Chomolungma meaning "Goddess Mother of Mountains." You might be surprised to know a fact that most of the Sherpa climbers perform the religious activity (puja) before stepping their feet for mountain climbing.
Who is George Everest?
Colonel George Everest was a British military engineer, surveyor and geographer born on 4 July 1790. He came to India at the age of 16 as he was contributing the East India Company. In 1823, he replaced former Great Trigonometric Survey's superintendent William Lambton on the post. For his hard work and brilliant performances, George was promoted as Surveyor General of India in 1830. He retired from the post in 1843 at the age of 53 and returned back to his native land, England.
Though the mountain was renamed after George's name, the pronunciation between them is different. The Surveyor General's name was pronounced as "EEV-rest" whereas the mountain's name is pronounced as "EVER-ist". During his professional career, George achieved the Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1847. The historic man died on 1 December 1866, in Hyde Park Gardens, London, England at the age of 76.
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